Earlier in the book he talks about GSH being the primary infra-cellular anti-oxidant that does this. This is the also the chapter on how to maximize your GSH levels, towards the end where he's talking about liposomes. He also mentions earlier in the same paragraph, how Intravenous GSH doesn't really get into your cells. It breaks down in the blood-stream and the precursors are what's absorbed into the cells and the cells have to reconstitute it. So if the cells aren't healthy in the first place, Intravenous GSH is going to be of limited value. Where-as Liposomal GSH can pass through the cell membrane intact and when the PC is broken down, it's just already there and active. Cells need to be healthy enough to put precursors back together in order for IV GSH to work. Fortunately, even diseased cells are able to do this a little bit even if it's not optimum, which is why people still see benefits from IV GSH."Lyposomal delivery is . . . energy-sparing. . . . "Sililarly, liposomes can directly deliver active, reduced vitamin C directly into the cells. Most commonly, vitamin C must be in its oxidized (spent) form to penetrate the cell membrane. Cellular electron stores must then be tapped to convert the oxidized vitamin C back to its active form." (His parenthesis, and bold/italics.)
Now, he does say mostly, so I'll admit it's not the only way to get vitamin C into the cells. But it is the primary way. So w/o LypoSomal delivery, it's important to maximize the cells manufacture of GSH so it can recharge the Vitamin C once it enters the cell, since most of the vitamin C (excepting Sodium transport, and Liposome encapsulation) will be oxidized when it gets inside the cell.
But if vitamin C is the only known way to raise intracellular GSH levels (per Dr. Halley) then something is again amiss in River City.
Now this statement doesn't make any sense to me at all. All Vitamin C can do is reduce oxidized GSH (thereby oxidizing itself). Obviously there are mechanisms by which the body manufactures it in the first place from raw materials. If there's things you can do to make these mechanisms more efficient, or get more raw materials to the manufacturer, it would make sense that the cells could start making more. Earlier in the same above-mentioned chapter Levy lists a bunch of nutrients that either facilitate the construction of precursors, and precursors themselves, as well as other anti-oxidents besides vitamin C that can reduce GSH (Of course when they do this, they get oxidized themselves.)
L-Carnatine, and Acytle-L-Carnatine. Is one of the main amino acids that helps facilitate the manufacture of GSH -- especially in combination with a-Lipoic Acid. Also Selenium.
Precursors you can take so the body has the raw materials include NAC, Glutamine, and Whey protein.
Other anti-oxidents besides VC include a-Lipoic Acid, SOD (and it's derivatives), Vitamin E, etc.
So there are obviously numerous ways to maximize GSH levels.
a) Make the cells healthier in the first place so it's easier for the cells to make it.
b) Take precursors so your cells have more raw materials to work with.
c) Take other anti-oxidents so that they can donate electrons to reduce pre-existing oxidized GSH. Vitamin C is but one of these, but it's by far the most powerful.
Levy has documentation in his book of all the above mentioned supplements increasing intra-cellular GSH levels. I'm not familiar with Dr Halley, but I'd posit you're either misunderstanding him, or he's wrong.
My only point is that Lypo-Spheric vitamin C, gets active vitamin C into the cells, w/o depleting GSH levels. Which is what, for most applications, Lypo-C is superior to IV C. Now, if you actually need the Vitamin C in the bloodstream, VC would be better. But most problems people have aren't acute infections or toxins in the blood-stream. Most of the problems we have from aging are cause by various focal scurvies which means you need the VC in your cells and tissues.
(By the same token, if you actually NEED the Vitamin C in your gut take regular oral vitamin C to bowel tolerance or beyond. Levy says that rotting food in the GI tracts is one of the main sources of toxicity to the body, 2nd only to dental toxicity.
If I caught some kind of stomach bug, I'd probably be trying to get all three delivery systems.