I learned so much about cholesterol and lipoproteins from this interview that I listened to it again and made an outline of the topics discussed, along with a few quotes of the juicier parts.
LINK to The Healthy Skeptic episode 11 w guest Chris Masterjohn
Minute 2 to about 11: The nomenclature most people use is not accurate. We need to distinguish between LDL and cholesterol.
minute 12: The roles that cholesterol can play in the body
minute 13: The diet-heart and lipid hypotheses
minute 34: Stephan Guyenet did a review of the studies. Observational studies have the strength of being a real world situation
vs. randomized trials - you can be much more certain of cause and effect but the application to the real world is much less certain
minute 37: L.A. Veterans study - butter vs. vegetable oils was studied
minute 40: rabbit studies of Nikolai Anchikov - he never said the rabbit model tranlated directly to human cholesterol physiology
minute 48: Discussion of what lipoproteins are and what they do
minute 49: What the molecular biology is. "What happens in the lipoprotein particle in order to cause atherosclerosis is" ---> Step 1. Oxidation of the PUFAs in the membranes of the lipoprotein particles. The lipoprotein particles fall apart and thereby become toxic. ---> Step 2. The response of the immune system to this is to detoxify the oxidized lipoprotein particles and protect the blood vessels. It does this by sequestering the oxidized particles in the atherosclerotic plaque material. This is a protective mechanism. ---> Step 3. The dangerous part, which is inflammation. "You get other sources of oxidative stress." Oxidation causes the plaque to fall apart; this causes a clot. "This ultimately is what leads to a clot in the (bloodstream) and then one gets a heart attack."
minute 59: The time factor is important; the time LDL spends in the blood is a major determinant of heart disease risk.
minute 61: What extra time in the bloodsteam will do to LDL particles (Answer: oxidation)
minute 62: Lipoprotein(a)
minute 63: Lipoprotein particle size is not as important as we've been led to believe
minute 68: "The basic big picture". LDL receptor activity is a good
minute 69: The liver is the main site where the LDL receptor is expressed
minute 70: How the liver regulates its cholesterol production. Most of its production is for the bile acids the liver itself produces, but some is needed for the rest of the body
minute 71: Leptin and thyroid hormone are what signal the liver how much cholesterol the rest of the body requires
minute 73: The epidemic of leptin resistance in our society. In many people in our society our bodies' signal for abundance is not getting through
Minute 83 to minute 88: Answer to question regarding Familial Hypercholesterolemia
minute 83: What people with familial hypercholesterolemia can do at home to most effectively protect themselves - it is, to some degree, preventing the oxidation of the LDL particle. But "to an even larger degree it's preventing the inflammation and pro-clotting environment that comes DOWNSTREAM from the formation of the atherosclerotic lesion."
minute 83: The Vitamin C self-produced by Anchikov's rabbits stabilized their plaque and protected them from clots thats would block coronary arteries
minute 84: These people should optimize their level of inflammation. "Optimize the clotting cascade. Look at all the clotting factors and inflammatory markers... That's what you can impact the most."
minute 85: "What they can impact next most is to provide adequate antioxidants in the diet and avoiding the stimulation of oxidative stress." The term "antioxidants" does not refer to a specific thing (blueberries for example); he means "the wide spectrum of antioxidants that are found in fresh whole animal and plant foods".
Co-Q10, B vitamins, lipoic acid, polyphenols, vitamin C.
minute 86: We need Vitamin C and all the other water soluble antioxidants to minimize oxidation of the blood, which is mostly water
-VanCanada'a notes from the podcast The Healthy Skeptic episode 11 (with host Chris Kresser, L.Ac.)
Copyright VanCanada. All rights reserved.
Related sources of information:
PDF file "Nikolai N. Anchikov and His Theory of Atherosclerosis"
"Nikolai N. Anichkov and his theory of atherosclerosis" abstract
Texas Heart Institute Journal